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Could Paxlovid Treat Long COVID?


In the 2 years since she caught the coronavirus, 38-year-old Jessica McGovern has cycled by means of “well over 100 drugs, supplements, and therapies” to attempt to preserve her long-COVID signs at bay. In nearly all circumstances, she instructed me, the interventions have been to no avail: Exhaustion, weak point, and aches nonetheless lashed her to the sofa; she nonetheless felt suffocating chest ache that worsened when she inhaled; her higher physique was nonetheless haunted by a pointy, staticky sensation that reminded her of operating sizzling water over frozen arms. McGovern would go to sleep in agony, then dream of extra agony.

Then, across the begin of April, she started a five-day course of Paxlovid, Pfizer’s antiviral tablet. By her second day on the drug, McGovern “could feel the messaging in my body shifting.” Four weeks later, her fatigue, aches, and labored respiration stay. But the screaming, nerves-on-fire ache that gripped her physique for 2 dozen months “is basically gone,” she instructed me. She’s recovered some mobility. She’s spending extra time along with her three younger youngsters. A flutist for practically three a long time, she’s enjoying her instrument once more after a two-year hiatus, “which feels incredible,” like reclaiming a shade of her former self.

To date, no established remedies exist for lengthy COVID. But in current weeks, a smattering of long-haulers—McGovern amongst them—have been shocked to really feel their sicknesses subside after taking Pfizer’s new drug. The case for treating lengthy COVID with antivirals is way from open-and-shut. But ought to these anecdotal stories augur a flood of comparable information, Paxlovid would possibly provide a surprisingly easy repair to one of many pandemic’s largest puzzles. Long COVID is so ranging, so numerous, so able to wreaking havoc on a mess of tissues that therapy, for a lot of, will undoubtedly require the rehabilitation of many bodily methods without delay. Maybe, although, for a subset of long-haulers, just a few days of antiviral capsules might be all it takes to rev the therapeutic course of into gear.

That Paxlovid might quench anybody’s long-COVID signs is itself a bit mysterious: The drug works greatest when delivered quick and early, futzing with the virus’s capability to xerox itself inside human cells and making it simpler for the immune system to jettison the bug. But lengthy COVID can take weeks or months to manifest, and hasn’t been confirmed to have a persistent viral supply. Experts nonetheless don’t know the way frequent, or lasting, post-pill reprieves is likely to be; they’ll’t say with confidence why the drug may have palliative results, or—if mentioned results are substantiated—which long-haulers stand to profit most.

Even within the rosiest situation, Paxlovid received’t be a panacea. But if it has an opportunity of doing one thing, even for only a fraction of long-haulers, “we have to at least try,” says Jeanne Marrazzo, the director of the division of infectious ailments on the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, “because we have nothing else.” Millions of individuals within the United States alone are estimated to have developed lengthy COVID’s harrowing signs because the pandemic’s begin; their numbers develop with every further wave. “This is an intervention that should [have been] under clinical trial yesterday,” says David Putrino, a neuroscientist and rehabilitation specialist at Mount Sinai. And but there are, up to now, no well-designed research investigating Paxlovid’s potential as a long-COVID drug, and none publicly poised to start.


The seek for long-COVID therapies has been stymied, partly, by the character of lengthy COVID. The situation, like most cancers, seems to be not a single illness however a class of related-but-distinct syndromes, every of which may manifest with its personal set of signs, require its personal remedies, and stem from a barely totally different trigger. In some proportion of long-haulers, possibly the bulk, the virus is believed to have come and gone, forsaking physiological devastation—battered tissues, raging irritation, self-attacking antibodies, discombobulated nerves, a freckling of blood clots. In these circumstances, consultants instructed me, Paxlovid in all probability received’t do diddly-squat. But maybe the drug may assist one other group of long-haulers, who’re thought to harbor hard-to-reach reservoirs of virus that frequently rile the physique up.

The snarl is that nobody has but supplied slam-dunk proof of those hidden viral caches. Many scientists, together with Yale’s Akiko Iwasaki, one of many world’s prime long-COVID researchers, argue that robust hints are there: SARS-CoV-2 definitely can stick round in sure individuals’s our bodies for months, and may mosey out of the airway to colonize different tissues, together with ones that sure immune fighters can’t simply entry. Researchers have seen traces of the virus’s genetic materials and proteins in a mélange of organs, generally months after infections start. But whereas these fragments may signify energetic virus, they is also bits of stray microbial trash. To assist clinch the case, researchers must recruit tons of long-haulers, guess the place the virus is likely to be lurking, and see if they might extract sufficient of the microbe from that tissue to contaminate new cells within the lab—research which are invasive, “long and slow and painful” to get excellent, and couldn’t even show that the virus was inflicting the signs at hand, says Catherine Blish, an immunologist at Stanford.

Still, Vineet Menachery, a coronavirus knowledgeable on the University of Texas Medical Branch, believes long-term an infection might be “more common than we think,” he instructed me. People’s lived experiences assist that too. Some long-haulers have reported feeling an enormous, surprising upswing in well-being after receiving COVID vaccines—a development a number of consultants attribute to the photographs galvanizing immune cells into lastly, lastly kicking out remnant virus.

The handful of post-Paxlovid enchancment tales now rising echo what different long-haulers felt with the vaccines. A bunch of Stanford researchers, led by the doctor Linda Geng, just lately reported {that a} 47-year-old girl’s long-COVID signs—amongst them, fatigue, insomnia, physique aches, cognitive points, and a racing heartbeat—evaporated after she took Paxlovid for a potential reinfection. “She was able to go back to work, and started exercising again,” Geng instructed me. A few long-haulers being handled at a clinic at UCSF could also be on an identical trajectory. Lavanya Visvabharathy, a 37-year-old immunologist at Northwestern University, skilled a bounceback as effectively. After months of complications, fatigue, and disturbed sleep, she nabbed Paxlovid on the finish of March, and “all my symptoms went away,” she instructed me. Visvabharathy, who takes immunosuppressive medicine to handle her rheumatoid arthritis, had been repeatedly testing antigen-positive. But after she completed Pfizer’s capsules, she noticed a unfavourable for the primary time since she was contaminated, in December.

Anecdotes and case research alone received’t be sufficient. So far, the stories of post-Paxlovid enhancements have been too inconsistent, too scant “to gauge what’s really happening,” Angela Meriquez Vázquez, who runs Body Politic, an advocacy group that gives assist to individuals with lengthy COVID, instructed me. Many long-haulers don’t qualify to take Paxlovid, as a result of they haven’t just lately examined constructive and are usually not thought-about at “high risk” of creating extreme COVID. Long COVID’s signs may naturally wax and wane, making it tough to tie reduction to a definitive trigger. To present with any actual readability whether or not Paxlovid’s doing what many long-haulers hope, somebody wants to check the speculation with rigorous medical trials, ideally with the assistance of the corporate that’s manufacturing the drug.


Pfizer doesn’t appear actively opposed. The firm is “considering how we would potentially study it,” Kit Longley, a spokesperson for Pfizer, wrote in an e mail, however declined to make clear why the corporate has no research beneath means. That frustrates Putrino, of Mount Sinai, who thinks Pfizer might want to spearhead many of those efforts; it’s Pfizer’s drug, in any case, and the corporate has the most effective information on it, and the means to maneuver it ahead. The NIH, whose RECOVER initiative has a price range of greater than $1 billion to review lengthy COVID, just lately sought proposals for medical trials of recent long-COVID therapies, together with, probably, antivirals—a promising step, Stanford’s Geng instructed me. But the company has been sharply criticized for dillydallying within the year-plus because the program launched, and for de-emphasizing treatment-focused trials. And there’s no assure that Paxlovid shall be among the many remedies examined. When requested to elaborate on Paxlovid’s experimental standing, Lindsay Gorby, an company spokesperson, mentioned solely that “NIH is very interested in long term viral activity as a potential cause of PASC (long COVID), and antivirals such as Paxlovid are in the class of treatments being considered for the clinical trials.”

In all equity, a Paxlovid–long-COVID trial can be powerful. Researchers nonetheless haven’t reached a consensus on learn how to outline or diagnose lengthy COVID, or what it means for sufferers to markedly enhance. Drugs towards extreme illness have an ultra-clear readout: “You count the number of people who end up in the hospital,” says Steven Deeks, a long-COVID researcher at UCSF. Long COVID’s sprawling scope, nevertheless, means no single ruler can measure the drug’s potential affect. Many of the consultants I spoke with felt a bit daunted by the concept of making an attempt to quantify the illness’s qualitative signs pre- and post-Paxlovid. That problem, they mentioned, might be a stumbling block for any analysis effort. But JD Davids, the co-founder of the Strategies for High Impact and its National Network for Long COVID Justice, who has lengthy COVID, instructed me scientists don’t must look far for inspiration. Researchers have already developed metrics for an additional persistent sickness, ME/CFS (which Davids additionally has) to fee, as an illustration, the severity of fatigue, mobility limitations, and ache. “You just have to believe that people can tell you how they are feeling,” Davids mentioned.

Then there’s the query of whom to enroll, and what number of of them. If solely a small fraction of long-haulers are duking it out with persistent virus, “you might not see the benefit” in trials, except they’re gargantuan in measurement, says Daniel Griffin, an infectious-disease doctor at Columbia. Researchers may hedge their bets by selectively recruiting long-haulers who regularly shed bits of virus genetic materials of their feces, say, or who solely just lately developed long-COVID signs and is likely to be extra prone to have SARS-CoV-2 nonetheless inside them. But choose the fallacious subset, and a trial may tank. Iwasaki, of Yale, needs to explicitly research the drug’s results in a variety of individuals. “The goal is not to cure everyone but understand who benefits,” she instructed me—and when. In some individuals, lengthy COVID may evolve from a viral downside into an autoimmune one, making early intervention important.

Paxlovid has baggage too. In current weeks, some individuals taking the five-day tablet course for brand spanking new infections have reported a rebound in signs and check positivity—a possible indication, UTMB’s Menachery instructed me, that the capsules aren’t sweeping all of the SARS-CoV-2 out. It’s nonetheless unclear how frequent the relapses are, and the issue could also be cropping up with lengthy COVID too. Alisa Valdes, a 53-year-old author who has battled greater than 220 long-COVID signs, “felt normal for the first time in 25 months” after taking Paxlovid in April. “I was skipping, I was jumping,” she instructed me. “I thought, This is a miracle.” But inside a day of the medicine operating out, her physique was as soon as once more aching, feverish, and infected; offended pink rashes that had disappeared got here roaring proper again.

Visvabharathy, the Northwestern immunologist, instructed me that just a few weeks after taking Paxlovid, she felt some signs creeping again as effectively. A check she took on the finish of April additionally got here up constructive. Perhaps Paxlovid’s five-day routine for acute COVID will have to be lengthened in some newly contaminated sufferers; long-haulers might require one thing extra prolonged nonetheless. Such a tweak may immediate a slew of security questions. The authentic medical trials turned up negative effects—occasional bouts of diarrhea, a nasty bitter tang within the mouth—that didn’t elevate big issues, however after months of unabating sickness, long-haulers’ our bodies might not react in the identical technique to the medicine, particularly when dosed on an extra-long course. Paxlovid additionally interferes with a hefty listing of different medicines, a few of which may’t be paused for prolonged durations.

Right now, long-haulers are playing with all of these query marks as they search the drug out—a few of them by means of loopholes within the health-care system, with the assistance of suppliers sympathetic to their trigger. With so few choices on the desk, individuals are “itching for any type of treatment,” Body Politic’s Vázquez instructed me, and a few are keen to abdomen a little bit of danger. But within the absence of actual information and rigorous analysis, and with so many unable to entry the drug in any respect, others are hesitant and confused—and afraid of being as soon as once more let down.


From the beginning of the pandemic, skepticism has dogged lengthy COVID and the individuals who dwell with it. McGovern, the flutist, spent a lot of 2020 being repeatedly instructed that her signs have been simply anxiousness, or that she was feeling off as a result of she was allergic to her pet parrots. (She just isn’t.) Attitudes have improved within the years since—however some medical doctors, as soon as not sure of lengthy COVID’s existence, now wrestle to wrap their head across the prospect of out-of-the-box remedies. At one level, I requested McGovern which of the various therapies she’s tried truly helped. “Aside from my family and close friends, you’re the first person to ask me that,” she instructed me. “I’ve never had a physician ask me ‘What has worked for you?’”

This skepticism can prolong to analysis too. Benjamin tenOever, a virologist at NYU, instructed me that he just lately had NIH funding pulled from a mission that will have investigated whether or not antivirals may fight long-COVID signs in a hamster mannequin. His contact on the company mentioned the research had “no merit,” tenOever instructed me. “They were like, This doesn’t make sense, because why would Paxlovid ever help long COVID? The virus is long gone.” (I reached out to the NIH about tenOever’s research, and so they instructed me they have been wanting into it.) Others posited that the potential good thing about antivirals for long-haulers may not really feel well worth the effort required to show it: Even if viral persistence performs a job, it might be fairly unusual. Yale’s Iwasaki dismisses this. “Say it’s only 10 percent of patients that respond positively,” she instructed me. That’s nonetheless probably hundreds of thousands of individuals within the U.S. alone.

America’s neglectful posture on lengthy COVID is choreographed into nearly each facet of what’s left of the nation’s pandemic response. Vaccines can’t completely block lengthy COVID, however are being billed, by way of boosters, as one of many solely interventions individuals want; the CDC’s latest pointers on masks nearly totally elide the situation’s existence, because it’s not classically thought-about to be clinically “severe.” Researchers aren’t even certain if early-acting remedies corresponding to antivirals slash individuals’s probabilities of getting lengthy COVID, although Iwasaki is hopeful that they do. With so few protections towards lengthy COVID out there or in use, its burden solely stands to develop. Therapies, not less than, may lastly assemble an exit ramp.

Paxlovid may nonetheless be a bust. But the method of figuring that out may shift the panorama for lengthy COVID. Carefully testing this drug in long-haulers may assist researchers construct templates for much more medical trials, Davids, of the National Network for Long COVID Justice, instructed me. And maybe different, extra highly effective therapies would comply with: antivirals particularly tailor-made for long-haulers’ wants, or immune-modulating medicine to fight the circumstances of lengthy COVID which are much less concerning the virus and extra concerning the physique attacking itself. Long COVID’s downside has all the time been a self-reinforcing one. It is tough to handle, so it goes unaddressed; international locations have no idea learn how to cope with it, so that they don’t, and easily by no means be taught. Reversing that development, Davids and different long-haulers instructed me, means not simply describing the situation however tackling it; not simply counting the individuals who dwell with it however working to cut back their ranks. The world has to begin that course of now, or danger falling additional behind.



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